Cadets, Drill Associations, Boys' Brigades, etc.

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Cadets, Drill Associations, Boys' Brigades, etc.

Postby Scona » 12 Jan 2013 00:24

I've taken an interest in cadet history in Canada and and would like to encourage anyone with knowledge on the subject to share it here. While I've come across some snippets of information here and there, it is a subject worthy of more research and publication. To kick the subject off, I'll cut and paste this piece from the Royal Canadian Army Cadet website, then add more later.

http://www.armycadethistory.com/Main_page.htm

The Royal Canadian Army Cadets (RCAC) can trace back their history to the creation of Drill Associations in 1861, predating confederation by 6 years. Great Britain had also formed cadets in 1860. These associations were linked to local schools. The American Civil War and the threat of the Fenian Raids motivated their creation in Upper and Lower Canada. These early cadet units, called drill associations, mark the beginning of the Canadian Cadet Movement, one of the country's oldest youth programs.

Trinity College Volunteer Rifle Company was formed June 1, 1861 in Port Hope, Ontario. Bishop’s College Drill Association was formed in Lennoxville, Que on December 6, 1861. Another fourteen of the early cadet corps called "Drill Associations" or "Rifle Companies" stood up in Ontario and Quebec. Canada's oldest continually serving cadet corps is No. 2 Bishop's College School Cadet Corps in Lennoxville, Quebec, its roots firmly in the previous drill association.

These early "drill associations" accepted members ranging in age from 13 to 60. The distinction between high school cadets and the adult militia became clear in 1879, when authorization was given to form 74 "Association for Drill in Educational Institutions". Young men over 14 years of age where invited to participate and would not be employed in active service.

These associations included:

* 34 in Ontario
* 24 in Quebec
* 13 in the Maritime provinces
* 2 in Manitoba
* 1 in British Columbia.


Public Support

An increased support, motivated in part by the Northwest Campaign during the Riel Rebellion of 1885, increased the issue of uniforms, weapons and other equipment to schools providing military training.

By 1887, the name cadet corps was recognized as designating the associations providing the training to boys over the age of 12.
Early Sea Cadets

The Navy League of Canada was founded in 1895 in order to support the lobby to create the Canadian Navy. Beginning in 1902, the League sponsored Canada's first Boys and Girls' Naval Brigades....
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Re: Cadets, Drill Associations, Boys' Brigades, etc.

Postby GrantRCanada » 13 Jan 2013 00:06

A worthy topic, and certainly one I'd like to learn more about!

Although my current knowledge doesn't go beyond your summary, really, I do happen to have a few period images (relating to my specific interest in firearms) which I'll post to start things off:

According to David Edgecombe in "Defending the Dominion: Canadian Military Rifles 1855-1955" this is the only known photograph showing a Canadian armed with one of the American Peabody rifles ordered in 1866 from the Providence Tool Co. (although not received until 1867) as part of the rather panicked re-arming of the Militia with breechloaders, pending receipt of the new Snider-Enfield rifle. Dating to the 1890's (as I recall) when these obsolete rifles were being issued to cadets, It shows Cadet Guy Thurtell, Guelph High School Corps -
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(The Peabody must have been quite a handful for young chaps like this. I can see why they soon began issuing obsolete Snider-Enfield cavalry carbines, instead ..... nd then when those ran out, converting full-length 3-band infantry rifles to the same length and configuration, to create the uniquely Canadian "Cadet Carbine".)

Cadets, Quebec City High School, circa 1890 -
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Detail cropped from above photograph -
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Toronto Public School Cadets, 1899 ("Trip to Tampa") -
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Detail from above -
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I also just found the following provisions (in the Canadian 1879 Militia Regulations) which would seem to have some bearing -

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Re: Cadets, Drill Associations, Boys' Brigades, etc.

Postby GrantRCanada » 13 Jan 2013 00:29

Oops .... forgot these, which came from the Notman Photograph Archive, McCord Museum, Montreal -

"Lady Russell's Cadets at 'Rosemount', Montreal, 1865" -
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Detail from above -
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Group of Cadets, Montreal, 1866 -
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Another shot of the same group -
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Re: Cadets, Drill Associations, Boys' Brigades, etc.

Postby GrantRCanada » 13 Jan 2013 00:54

I keep finding more .... this time in my Queen's own rifles of Canada material .....

From the Queen's Own Rifles of Canada Archives:
[quote]Upper Canada College formed a Rifle Company in 1860 as a volunteer 11th company attached to 2nd Battalion, Volunteer Militia Rifles of Canada shortly after it was founded in Toronto. This commitment by a prominent private school reflected the public spirit and volunteerism of Victorian Canada that was expressed in the militia movement of the day./quote]

This Corps was apparently associated with the QOR for 127 years!

Some related images:

Seventeen UCC Cadets, 1893 -
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Upper Canada College Cadets drilling, 1890's -
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Upper Canada college Cadets, 1899 -
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(Martini-Henry rifles in the last two images!)
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Re: Cadets, Drill Associations, Boys' Brigades, etc.

Postby Dixie » 14 Jan 2013 14:24

Those are some fantastic images you have there Grant!
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Re: Cadets, Drill Associations, Boys' Brigades, etc.

Postby Waggoner » 14 Jan 2013 15:02

Grant,

Great vintage Cadet photos! Thank you for sharing. My tie with #11 SDCI CC came much later:-)

All the best,

Gary
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Re: Cadets, Drill Associations, Boys' Brigades, etc.

Postby Scona » 19 Jan 2013 20:10

A terrific contribution, Grant. I've also started the subject on the CEF forum for anybody interested.
http://www.cefresearch.ca/phpBB3/viewforum.php?f=63

The first general service cap badge and collars for Cadet Services of Canada officers. I read somewhere that these were originally issued in the 1880's but haven't been able to verify that. This insignia was replaced in 1915.

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Re: Cadets, Drill Associations, Boys' Brigades, etc.

Postby Scona » 28 Jan 2013 19:21

Image

It's too bad the beaver isn't used more on current insignia. It's very Canadian.
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Re: Cadets, Drill Associations, Boys' Brigades, etc.

Postby Spañiard » 08 Aug 2015 01:51

Scona wrote:I've taken an interest in cadet history in Canada and and would like to encourage anyone with knowledge on the subject to share it here. While I've come across some snippets of information here and there, it is a subject worthy of more research and publication. To kick the subject off, I'll cut and paste this piece from the Royal Canadian Army Cadet website, then add more later.

http://www.armycadethistory.com/Main_page.htm

By 1887, the name cadet corps was recognized as designating the associations providing the training to boys over the age of 12.
Early Sea Cadets

[/b]



The Royal Canadian Army Cadets (RCAC) can trace its history to the creation of drill associations or militia companies in 1861, pre-dating confederation by six years. These early militia companies and drill associations were not cadet corps but were militia sub-units formed in educational and other public institutions. Enrolment was limited to men between the ages of 13 and 60. The drill was not only a parade square and discipline exercise, but a skill that was necessary for the defence of the Colony. The American Civil War and the threat of the Fenian Raids motivated their creation in Upper and Lower Canada.

Trinity College Volunteer Rifle Company was formed June 1, 1861 in Port Hope, Ontario. Bishop’s College Drill Association was formed in Lennoxville, Que. on December 6, 1861. Another 14 of the early "Drill Associations" or "Rifle Companies" stood up in Ontario and Quebec. Canada's oldest continually serving cadet corps is No. 2 Bishop's College School Cadet Corps in Lennoxville, Quebec, its roots firmly in the previous drill associations.

In 1904 the allocation of numbers to cadet corps was instituted and the Quarterly Militia List, correct to April 1, 1904 lists Cadet Organizations from 1 to 104. The earliest date of organization shown is November 28, 1879 four months after Militia General Order 18 of July 25, 1879 allowed the formations of 74 "Associations for Drill in Educational Institutions" for young men. These cadets were taught drill and marksmanship, but were not required to be employed in active service. The 74 associations included 34 in Ontario, 24 in Québec, 13 in the Maritimes, two in Manitoba, and one in British Columbia.

The origin is debatable, as some believe it was first used in 1898, in Ontario, bundled in a provision that the Corps' instructors would be a member of the local school teaching staff, and not from the local militia unit.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Royal_Canadian_Army_Cadets


The above mainstream historian, on-line recycled account, are vague, questionable and debatable. Bishop’s College designated a Drill Association formed in Decr., 6th 1861, only unfolded in 1869; its seeds were firmly rooted in the Independent Rifle Companies, raised during the Trent Affair. As for “another 14 early Drill Associations or Rifle Companies stoop up, in Ontario and Quebec,” is misleading, erroneous. For Lower & Upper Canada by February 1862 over 60 Independent, Regular, Volunteer, “Rifle, Infantry Companies,” “Class A & B” were authorised. The amendment Section 11 consisted of; “professors, masters, pupils of Universities, Schools or other public Institutions raised the above mentioned companies,” I only found two non-school’s DA.’s organised. Drill Associations were only assented by the militia act amendment, 9th June, 1862, with minimal interest from educational institutions, the majority preferred Rifle, Infantry, etc., Coy’s or were already authorized as active, independent, volunteer &c., pre amendment. This prompted a new regulation, obligating the Militia District Divisions and Sub-Divisions, of the “Sedentary Battalions, Companies,” too raise Drill Associations. By Dec., 1862 to 7th Feb., 1863, a total of 76 Drill Associations were authorised by GO., though 70 were allotted by Section 11.

In Col. E.J. Chambers’ compilations, “cadets” were organized at Quebec pre and post 1860s. “The exigencies of military service, however, made it necessary to use the Canadian settlers on far distant fields on militia service. When Celeron de Bienville, June 15th. 1749, left Lachine on his celebrated expedition to the Valley of the Ohio, he had no less than- 180 Canadian Militia with him, the rest of his force, exclusive of Indians, being 14 officers and cadets and 20 soldiers.” “French Noblesse in the Province of Quebec, November, 1767:—Captains having the Order of St. Louis, 9; captain named in the Order but not invested, 1; captains who have not the Order, 4; lieuts. having the Order, 1; lieuts., 16; Ens., 20; officiers de reserve, 2; cadets, 23; have never been in the service, 44; in the upper country who have never been in the service, 6; total, 126.”

For 1864: After these schools had been a season at work, he collected those who had qualified at them in a camp he formed at the old disused barrack of Laprairie, which is south of the St. Lawrence river, near Montreal. He asked me to be its commandant, and, always anxious for any interesting employment, I gladly accepted the offer. These cadets were formed into two battalions, one of Upper, the other of Lower Canadians, and two excellent officers of the Canadian militia were selected to command them.

I’m presently working on a series for my Blog, on the Permanent Force, Active Militia, and “Military College Cadets, original submitted reports from 1905 till 1915. M&D Reports for Cadets, School instruction etc were submitted, when finished, I’ll assemble all I can dig up on them and turn into text.



SVP: Mainstream historians claim: “The origin of is debatable, as some believe it was first used in 1898, in Ontario.” The term "Cadet Corps," was officially used in Gov. papers in 1891, however still looking for pre 1890.


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Re: Cadets, Drill Associations, Boys' Brigades, etc.

Postby Spañiard » 08 Aug 2015 02:15

GrantRCanada wrote:I keep finding more .... this time in my Queen's own rifles of Canada material .....

From the Queen's Own Rifles of Canada Archives:



"It was while Canada was stirred from one end to the other with military excitement and patriotic fervor, that the first boys'
cadet corps was organized in Montreal. This was in 1864,"

The Montreal High School, through its learned and much beloved rector, the late Dr. H. Aspinall Howe, inherited something of the fine traditions and spirit of the great English public schools, and the boys of the fifth and sixth forms decided that they would emulate the example of the English school boys, and form a cadet corps. The subject has been mooted by Major F. S. Barnjum, adjutant and drill instructor of the First Prince of Wales Regiment, and professor of gymnastics and physical training at McGill University and the High School. The organization was soon completed, the boys supplied themselves with neat uniforms of light Halifax tweed, with blue-black facings, and after some trouble the military authorities consented to loan the corps enough muzzleloading Enfield carbines to arm one company.

The corps was a marked success from the start. The lads entered into their military work with the proper spirit, and Major Barnjum was an exceptionally capable instructor. He was something more than a mere drill sergeant, seizing every opportunity to instil into the boys' minds the great military virtues of truth, courage, manliness, neatness, loyalty and esprit de corps. The High School boys were very proud of their cadet corps, and well they had reason to be, for it was a very efficient corps as admitted by the officers of the crack regiments of Her Majesty's
army then stationed in Montreal.



I have around 25 + Photos of CDN Cadets from the Olden Days, might use a few of yours and source "GrantRCanada Photobucket" on my Blog under the Photo.



5th battalion RSC and Montreal's First Highland Cadet Corps.


In 1879, a militia general order was issued providing for the establishment of drill companies in connection with educational institutions. Companies were to consist of sixty boys each, and the government agreed to supply them with rifles, bayonets and belts. The High School Cadets always provided themselves with their belts and bayonet frogs. With prospects of rifle practice in view, sixty of the boys of the Cadet Rifles, with the approval of Major Barnjum and the school authorities, promptly filled in one of the blanks provided by the Militia Department, and in due course militia orders announced the establishment of a "drill company" in connection with the Montreal High School, with the following officers : —
Captain, E. J. Chambers first lieutenant, Jos. Fair ; second lieutenant, R. Kirkpatrick.


THE CADET MOVEMENT OF 1889.
The cadet movement of 1889, in Montreal, in some respects, resembled the Volunteer movement at the time of the Trent excitement. It is true that there was no war agitation to foster the movement, but, nevertheless, there was as keenly developed a military fever among the boys and youths of Montreal, in 1889, as there had been among the men of the good, loyal city in 1862. Cadet corps sprang into existence everywhere, and boys of all classes hastened to apply for enrolment. Some of the cadet corps organized on paper never materialized in fact; not a few which actually passed through the initial stages of organization had brief meteoric existences, and succumbed to the inevitable difficulties which beset their paths. Just about this time Major Lydon chanced to be talking to some youthful friends, lads who were in business, and suggested that they should form themselves into an independent cadet corps. He added that if his young friends would get the boys he would look after them.

Major Fred. S. Lydon was then, and for many years had been, the indefatigable adjutant and drill instructor of the 5th Royal Scots of Canada, and loved soldiering and especially drill with all the ardour of an old King's Own (60th) Rifleman. The lad to whom he especially addressed himself, is now Captain Stuart, of the First Prince of Wales Regiment of Fusiliers, the regiment formed a few years ago by the amalgamation of the old 1st Prince of Wales Rifles and the 6th Fusiliers. Major Lydon's suggestion was responsible for the organization of the Highland Cadets, but how it was effected, we will leave unexplained for the present.

The Cadet movement was more an idea than a fact as yet. It needed some impetus, and this it was to get. During the summer, Montreal was invaded by a very smart cadet corps from the public schools of Guelph, Ontario, under Sergeant Bell, formerly of A Battery, R. C. A. And a smart and very attractive corps it was, including a company of neatly uniformed girls as well as boys. The western youngsters gave an exhibition of drill and callisthenics which completely took the city by storm. And the local cadet movement received the necessary impetus. The organization of the High School Cadets, on a stronger basis than ever, was easily effected after the opening of the new term ; the St. Mary's College Cadets were more enthusiastically' supported by the boys of the big college of Bleury street than the ever were; Lady Alexander Russell's Own were reorganized at St. John's School. Private schools and public schools throughout the city undertook to organize cadet corps as the correct thing. Major Thos. Atkinson, adjutant of the 6th Fusiliers, besides reorganizing Lady Alexander Russell's Own, organized an independent corps, which had about two years' existence, and which was known as the Montreal Cadet Corps. Cadet companies by the score were promoted.

It was the combination of two widely recognized Scottish characteristics or virtues which resulted in the organization of the Highland Cadets — the soldier instinct and national spirit. Early in the autumn of 1889 a deputation of youths, with their fathers, waited on Major Lydon who was then, and had been for many yearrs previously, adjutant of the Fifth Battalion Royal
Scots, with a request that he Mayor Lydon would organize a cadet corps with the abjectly of its being attached to and acting as a feeder to his regiment. Mr. W. Stuart, now a very efficient captain in the First Prince of Wales Fusiliers, then a lad, was the spokesman. It was intended, he explained, that the corps should be formed of two companies, the first of youths of sixteen years of age and upwards, and the second company to be made up of boys from twelve to fifteen years of age. Each company was to be limited in number to fifty.

Major Lydon promptly accepted the task and agreed to give all his spare time to drilling and otherwise organizing the corps, providing of course that his then commanding officer, the late Lieutenant-Colonel Frank Caverhill, would give his consent and allow the corps the use of the regimental armoury to drill in and to store their arms, etc. This consent. Colonel Caverhill very ready agreed to, and the cadets always met with the kindest consideration and encouragement from Colonel Caverhill, even after he had retired from the command of his regiment.


I have allot more, that puts' into question the status quo account, per say two types of Cadet Corps were organised in 1862 etc post "Trent Affair."


OFFICIAL RECOGNITION.
It was not until the Highland Cadets had done ten years of hard, conscientious work, that the splendid little corps received official recognition. There is nothing very exceptional, unfortunately, in official failure to recognize service and merit in the Canadian military service, but it is none the less discouraging. It is a reasonable, manly axiom of the profession of arms, that the soldier must not do his duty with a view of receiving any other reward than the sweet consciousness of duty well performed; but, however good a soldier a man may be, he must be excused for some degree of disappointment, and for some loss of zeal, even, if subtended to constant official neglect, and absolute discouragement.

And that is certainly what the experience of the Highland Cadets was for the first ten years of its experience. Till, within the past few years, the militia department not only would not assist the Highland Cadets, but would not recognize the formation of cadet corps of any kind in connection with the active militia. More than that, the department absolutely tried to throw such obstacles in the way as would make it impossible, for any one who was not of the sternest and most obstinate disposition, to succeed in maintaining a cadet corps. Major Lydon had the necessary obstinacy and determination, and he needed it. His plucky young Highlanders must have had a fair share of the same qualities.

From the first inception of the corps, in 1889, it has been one long and continuous struggle to keep it in existence, and those who have been willing to lend the plucky lads, and their fairly heroic organizer and instructor a helping hand have been few and far between.


In the report of the Scots' inspection, in the " Military Gazette" of July 1st, 1896, the following appeared: " **The Highland Cadets looked well on Saturday. They joined the Scots previous to their march through the city, and much favourable comment was heard as to their splendid appearance. ' ' The "Canadian Military Gazette," July 15th, 1896, published the following: " '*The Highland Cadets had a most enjoyable outing, on 4th July, to Ogdensburg. They were treated handsomely, and their drilling caused favourable comment. Mayor R. Wilson-Smith's cup, which he has presented to the corps, will be handed over at the first favourable opportunity. Just now, they are drilling hard in anticipation of the event." The ** Canadian Military Gazette' of September 15th, 1896, contained the following reference to the corps: " '*On Friday week, quite a large crowd visited the Drill Hall for the purpose of witnessing the Highland Cadets go through their annual inspetion by Lieutenant-Colonel J. A. Strathy, commanding the Royal Scots. They did their work well, and presented a very good appearance. Their work was really a credit to so young a corps. At the close, Lieutenant-Colonel Strathy complimented them, and stated that, in the absence of Mayor Wilson Smith, the cup would not be presented until some afternoon during the exhibition." For want of room to erecfl a Morris tube target, the corps has not been able to do anything in target pratice for the last few years, but when their quarters are altered " which is promised soon " a range will be provided and practice kept up, for Major Lydon and his boys have always appreciated the value and pleasure of rifle practice. Now that the recoil of the service rifle has been reduced so near to the vanishing point, there is no reason why the Government should not offer to the cadets, in common with every other cadet corps in Canada, at least equal inducements as given to the adlive militia battalions, to make themselves proficient in marksmanship. And yet requests that the cadet corps be furnished with a few service rifles for target practice, and that they be given the right to use the Government rifle ranges, have been promptly refused. So much for the intelligent appreciation of the question of military training by Canadian officialdom.





C.U.
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